On Tuesday, we tried to clarify the concepts of migration, immigration and emigration, and we realised that those concepts are directly related with another two concepts, which also create a similar conflict; refugees and asylum seekers. That’s why today’s objective is explaining the differences between these two concepts. We would then move on further to introduce whom is considered as an internally displaced person (IDPs) or a stateless person. Additionally, we will specify what jurisdiction those individuals have.
Thanks to the Refugee Convention (1951) and its Protocol (1967), we can say that a refugee is every person who has a “well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it” [Art. 2].
However, an asylum seeker is “someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated”.
Another of these vulnerable groups is considered an internally displaced person by the UNHCR. Legally, this person is someone whom “has not crossed an international border to find sanctuary but have remained inside their home country”. As citizens, differing from refugees and asylum seekers, they retain all of their rights and protection under both human rights and international humanitarian law.
Whereas, when a civilian crosses the international border of his country, he is a refugee and he receives international protection. When someone is an Internally Displaced Person, it can be quite complicated to offer international aid due to the rights of self-determination of the state of origin.
Finally, in the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Person (1954) we found that people considered as stateless are those who “are NOT considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law”. This way, they have just a limited access to the legal international protection or basic rights such as health and education.
Here it is really important to keep in mind that having a nationality is a fundamental requirement to participate fully in society and it is also a essential requirement to feature many aspects of our human rights.
Hope you have enjoyed today’s post.
We would cover more in depth the differing rights and difficulties that many people encounter when fleeing one’s state in later posts.
Thanks a lot!!
¿Cuál es la diferencia? Refugiados y Solicitantes de asilo.
Sin embargo, por solicitantes de asilo se entiende aquella persona que “solicita el reconocimiento de la condición de refugiado y cuya solicitud todavía no ha sido evaluada en forma definitiva”.
Sin embargo, cuando un civil cruza la frontera internacional de su país, se convierte en un refugiado y recibe protección internacional. Cuando dicha persona es desplazada dentro de su país, es realmente complicado ofrecer ayuda desde el exterior debido al derecho de autodeterminación que tiene su país de origen.
Finalmente, en la Convención sobre el Estatuto de los Apátridas (1954) encontramos que las personas declaradas como apátridas son aquellas que “no es reconocida por ningún país como ciudadano”. De esta manera, disfrutan solamente de un acceso mínimo a la protección legal internacional o a derechos básicos tales como salud y educación.
Es importante señalar en este punto que tener una nacionalidad es un requisito fundamental para disfrutar de una participación plena en la sociedad y un requisito previo para el disfrute de muchos derechos fundamentales.
Hasta aquí el post de hoy, la semana que viene más. Esperamos que hayáis disfrutado.
En futuros posts nos centraremos en especificar cómo se aplican los derechos a estas personas.